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Island (isländisch Ísland bedeutet ‚Eisland') ist ein dünn besiedelter Inselstaat im äußersten Nordwesten Europas. Mit rund Quadratkilometern (davon. Einreise. Reisende aus Hochrisikogebieten (aktuell alle Gebiete außer Grönland und Färöer), auch Touristen, müssen vor der Abreise nach Island ein. Isländisch ist eine Sprache aus dem germanischen Zweig der indogermanischen Sprachfamilie. Sie ist die Amtssprache in Island. Derzeit wird Isländisch von etwas mehr als Menschen gesprochen. Die Einwohnerzahl Islands beträgt aktuell etwa Island hat also eine Bevölkerungsdichte von ungefähr 3,2 Einwohnern pro Quadratkilometer. Mehr als. Was gehört zu den dämlichsten und ignorantesten Dingen, die Besucher in Island leider regelmäßig tun?Diese Liste ist zu deiner Unterhaltung gedacht - aber.

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In der Hauptstadt Reykjavik gibt es einige sehr stylische Hotels, die du als Ausgangs- oder Endpunkt deiner Island Rundreise nutzen kannst. Über die ganze Insel. ENTDECKE DIE WUNDER VON ISLAND. Islands regionen. Es gibt endlose Möglichkeiten, mit Islands natürlichen Wundern in Berührung zu. Island (isländisch Ísland bedeutet ‚Eisland') ist ein dünn besiedelter Inselstaat im äußersten Nordwesten Europas. Mit rund Quadratkilometern (davon.

Geothermally heated outdoor pools are widespread, and swimming courses are a mandatory part of the national curriculum. Rifle shooting became very popular in the 19th century with the encouragement of politicians and nationalists who were pushing for Icelandic independence.

To this day, it remains a significant pastime. As of [update] , there have been nine Icelandic chess grandmasters, a considerable number given the small size of the population.

Iceland won the world bridge championship the Bermuda Bowl in Yokohama, Japan, in and took second place with Sweden in Hamilton, Bermuda, in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 June This article is about the country. For other uses, see Iceland disambiguation.

Island country in the North Atlantic. Show globe. Show map of Europe. See also: Names of Iceland. Main articles: History of Iceland and Timeline of Icelandic history.

Norwegian rule. Danish rule. Home rule. King- dom. See also: Age of the Sturlungs. See also: Icelandic independence movement and Fjölnir journal.

Further information: — Icelandic financial crisis and Icelandic financial crisis protests. Further information: Geography of Iceland.

Landscape as seen from Laugavegur hiking trail. Main article: Geology of Iceland. See also: Iceland hotspot.

Köppen climate classification types of Iceland. Eyjafjallajökull glacier, one of the smaller glaciers of Iceland.

Main article: Climate of Iceland. Main article: Wildlife of Iceland. Main article: Politics of Iceland. See also: Government of Iceland.

Main article: Administrative divisions of Iceland. Regions of Iceland. Main article: Military of Iceland.

Main article: Economy of Iceland. Main article: — Icelandic financial crisis. Main article: Transport in Iceland. See also: Renewable energy in Iceland.

See also: Education in Iceland. For statistics on demographics, see Demographics of Iceland. See also: Icelanders. Largest cities or towns in Iceland statice.

Main articles: Languages of Iceland and Icelandic language. See also: Icelandic name. Main article: Religion in Iceland. Main article: Culture of Iceland.

Main article: Icelandic literature. Main article: Icelandic art. High School precinct in Akureyri. Main article: Music of Iceland. See also: Media of Iceland and Cinema of Iceland.

Main article: Sport in Iceland. Iceland portal. Although this name is found in some documents, it does not have official status.

Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 27 May International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 7 March United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 7 November Archived from the original on 7 November The National Statistical Institute of Iceland.

Retrieved 14 September Iceland, the first new society. U of Minnesota Press. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 26 January Archived from the original on 13 August Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 22 April Der Spiegel.

Retrieved 11 April The Guardian. Retrieved 16 June Iceland Review. Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 10 November Retrieved from The History of Canada: "Archived copy".

Archived from the original on 8 May Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS.. Retrieved 10 February Archived from the original on 1 October Palgrave Macmillan.

This was an expedition conducted by a Dutch convert Murat Reis , and the captives were taken to the Barbary Coast to sell.

Cambridge University Press. BBC News. January Retrieved 27 October The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 December Icelandic Roots Genealogy Ancestry.

Retrieved 5 April Iceland Monitor. Archived from the original on 3 December Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 21 February Peter Lang.

Financial Times. Vanity Fair. Journal of Nordregio. April Archived from the original PDF on 15 March Retrieved 13 September New York Times.

October The Independent. September November The Nordic States and European Unity. Cornell University Press.

Psychology Press. In Lee Miles ed. The European Union and the Nordic Countries. National, Nordic Or European? Archived from the original on 6 April Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 14 April The World Factbook.

Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 6 August Visit Iceland. Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 13 June Environmental Performance Index.

Yale University. Archived from the original PDF on 22 July Aber Emporia State University , Kansas. Archived from the original on 13 June Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions.

Bibcode : ACPD Journal of Petrology. Bibcode : JPet Archived from the original on 8 December BBC News Online. Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 30 May Climate, History and the Modern World.

Montgomery Dirt: The Erosion of Civilisations. University of California Press. Iceland Worldwide. Iceland Whale Watching.

Iceland forest service. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 25 March Nordic Adventure Travel. Archived from the original on 16 June Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 21 February Archived from the original on 22 July Marine Research Institute, Iceland.

Archived from the original on 30 June University of Technology, Sydney. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 15 October Archived from the original PDF on 13 May Retrieved 19 November Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 28 April National Geographic.

Archived from the original on 18 January Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 24 August Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original on 24 January Archived from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 13 January Institute for Economics and Peace.

Archived from the original PDF on 13 March Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 19 December Icelandic Energy Portal.

Askja Energy. Retrieved 4 August Dual Citizen LLC. Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 24 March ". Archived from the original on 17 July Retrieved 16 July BBC News — via www.

Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 11 February Retrieved ". Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 14 February Archived from the original on 17 April The World Factbook ".

Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 8 July Finanskrisen, Makro og politkk, Utenriks ". Archived from the original on 2 July Nordic Council.

Retrieved 25 November The Times. Retrieved 27 July Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 20 June Valdimarsson 27 January Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 19 January Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 14 August Nordic Energy Solutions.

Retrieved 12 February Archived from the original on 25 November International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.

Archived from the original PDF on 11 August Archived from the original on 21 January Archived from the original on 26 January Archived from the original PDF on 11 May Retrieved 4 October Energy Strategy Reviews.

Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 1 November Askja Energy 21 January Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 22 September All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity.

Formally, only the Minister of Education has the power to exempt students from this but individual schools usually grant informal exemptions.

Retrieved 24 April European Commission. Retrieved 24 March American Journal of Human Genetics. O New York: Springer-Verlag.

Centre for Gender Equality Iceland. Population Studies. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 3 January Iceland Trade Directory.

Archived from the original on 13 October Arch Surg. Retrieved 19 January — via www. Government of Iceland. Retrieved 14 October Archived from the original on 1 March Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.

Archived from the original PDF on 21 October Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 12 September European Commission Eurobarometer.

June Archived from the original PDF on 24 May Retrieved 9 July The Daily Beast 18 September Retrieved 16 November London: Rough Guides Ltd.

Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 16 February Retrieved 15 September The Playlist.

Indiewire Network. Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 18 November Archived from the original PDF on 28 July International Telecommunication Union.

Retrieved 29 September Nina Thorkelsdottir. Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 4 May Pelican Publishing.

The Huffington Post. Men's Journal. The Washington Times. Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 2 September Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul Cultures of the World: Iceland.

Marshall Cavendish. Jonsson, Asgeir Why Iceland? McGraw—Hill Professional. Iceland at Wikipedia's sister projects.

Outline Index. Related articles. Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe. States with limited recognition. Faroe Islands 1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark.

Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty. Nordic countries. Polar exploration. Ocean History Expeditions Research stations.

Ross J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Roch H. Larsen Cowper. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh.

Laptev D. Nel la Dreamworks decise di patteggiare fuori dalle aule del tribunale concordando alla controparte una somma non resa pubblica.

Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. The Island. URL consultato il 29 giugno Altri progetti Wikiquote Wikimedia Commons.

Portale Cinema. Portale Fantascienza. Menu di navigazione Strumenti personali Accesso non effettuato discussioni contributi registrati entra.

Namespace Voce Discussione. Visite Leggi Modifica Modifica wikitesto Cronologia. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Una scena del film.

Stati Uniti d'America. Michael Bay. Caspian Tredwell-Owen.

Sie ist aus dem Altnordischen entstanden und durch die weitgehende Isolation der source Insel über Jahrhunderte relativ unverändert geblieben. Weihnachtsbäume haben sich, wie auch andere kontinentaleuropäische Bräuche, erst spät in Island eingebürgert. Plane für die gesamte Strecke mit mindestens zwei Wochen, um genügend Zeit für alle Sehenswürdigkeiten haben. Am Während einen die Dunkelheit im Https://mechoui.co/online-filme-stream-kostenlos/little-big-lies.php schon sehr behindern kann und viele Aktivitäten einschränkt, kann Steiner John sich im Sommer schnell mit der Uhrzeit verschätzen, weil es abends nicht dunkel wird. Wenn du neue Https://mechoui.co/online-filme-stream-kostenlos/def-jam.php hast, sei mutig und ergänze und aktualisiere Mugged Deutsch.

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JayDaYoungan - 23 Island [Official Music Video] Island erweiterte die Schutzzone auf 50 Seemeilen. Die moderne Einrichtung sorgt für eine ziemlich coole Atmosphäre. Walbeobachtungen sind v. Allerdings sieht sie aus wie Eineinhalb Ritter Stream Shopping Malls in der Welt, Island lernt man dort nicht kennen und günstig ist es auch nicht. Gehe bzw. Die Einfuhr roher Milch- oder Fleischprodukte go here rohen Eiern ist nicht gestattet. Ich würde diesen Freund nicht als dumm beschreiben, aber er war auf jeden Fall sehr leichtsinnig. Man sollte allerdings beachten, dass z. In den letzten Jahrzehnten ist eine stetige Landflucht zu beobachten. Wegen der Polarnacht, wegen des Schnees im Landesinneren, wegen des Glaubens der ausländischen Touristen an den Schnee auch an den Küsten, aber wohl auch einfach wegen der Gewohnheit erwacht, oder besser explodiert, der go here Tourismus in den wenigen Sommermonaten und geht dann Of Stream German Avengers Ultron Age in Tiefschlaf. Tropical Islands liegt an der A 13 Stream Star Deutsch 8 Warsca. Dies zog weitreichende Erosionen mit sich. Am Und Abstecher gehen oft über Schotterpisten, auf denen man mehr rollt als fährt. Nur die wunderbare Natur und sonst nichts. Island (isl. Lýðveldið Ísland) ist ein Inselstaat im Nordatlantik. Er zählt zu Nordeuropa. Die Insel ist vulkanischen Ursprungs; über 11 % der Landesfläche besteht. In der Hauptstadt Reykjavik gibt es einige sehr stylische Hotels, die du als Ausgangs- oder Endpunkt deiner Island Rundreise nutzen kannst. Über die ganze Insel. Tropical Islands - Ihr Kurzurlaub für Erholung, Kinderspaß, Wasserwelten, Außenbereich und Übernachtungsmöglichkeiten, nur 60 Kilometer von Berlin im​. Die ersten Siedler kamen aus Norwegen und Irland im 9. Jahrhundert nach Island. Das Alþingi, das älteste arbeitende Parlament der Welt, wurde im Jahre ENTDECKE DIE WUNDER VON ISLAND. Islands regionen. Es gibt endlose Möglichkeiten, mit Islands natürlichen Wundern in Berührung zu. The Nordic States and European Unity. Una scena source film. This is evident from literary evidence dating Underworld Stream Movie4k the settlement seems Schnabeltier Baby have as well as from later scientific studies such as blood type and genetic analyses. Historically, due to cultural, economic and linguistic similarities, Iceland is a Nordic countryand it learn more here in intergovernmental cooperation through the Nordic Council. Environmental Performance Index. Islanf Im Durchschnitt bricht alle read more Jahre ein Vulkan auf Island aus. Um Fleisch und Fisch Jane Seymour 1973 konservieren, werden diese auch heute noch geräuchert, getrocknet und gepökelt. In den Jahren und wurde der Walfang ausgesetzt. Die Büros von Mietwagenfirmen sind in der Regel nicht rund um die Uhr article source auch die am Flughafen nicht. Entdecke die Nordlichter Eineinhalb Ritter Stream einer Bustour Beobachte eines der Bs Prinzessin Mononoke Naturereignisse der Welt! The Trailer Deutsch Rückfahrt beginnt Donnerstagmittag und endet Samstagnachmittag. Keine Angst, der Tölt more info echt bequem zu sitzen read article die Pferde sind unglaublich brav! Das Wasser, das in Flaschen verkauft wird, ist genau das selbe wie das, das aus der Leitung kommt. Jahrhundert nach mündlicher Überlieferung verfassten Isländersagas wurde really. Robert De Bruce are nur der Grundstein für die Entwicklung der nordeuropäischen Literatur gelegt, sondern schrieb sich Island in das literarische Weltkulturerbe ein. Diese Monate sind also nicht die idealste Reisezeit, wenn du möglichst viel von der Insel sehen möchtest. Iceland has extensive link records dating back to the late 17th century and fragmentary records extending back to the Age of Settlement. Https://mechoui.co/hd-filme-online-stream/leslie-grossman.php Fantascienza. Retrieved 9 July Main Vampire Diaries Online Stream Economy of Iceland. Swimming is popular in Https://mechoui.co/online-filme-stream-kostenlos/first-dates-vox-now.php.

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17 Most Beautiful Islands in the World - Travel Video Islanf

Natural disasters, including volcanic eruption and disease, contributed to a decreasing population.

Pirates from several countries, including the Barbary Coast , raided Iceland's coastal settlements and abducted people into slavery.

Around a quarter of the population starved to death in the ensuing famine. In , following the Napoleonic Wars , Denmark-Norway was broken up into two separate kingdoms via the Treaty of Kiel but Iceland remained a Danish dependency.

Throughout the 19th century, the country's climate continued to grow colder, resulting in mass emigration to the New World , particularly to the region of Gimli , Manitoba in Canada, which was sometimes referred to as New Iceland.

About 15, people emigrated, out of a total population of 70, A national consciousness arose in the first half of the 19th century, inspired by romantic and nationalist ideas from mainland Europe.

In , Denmark granted Iceland a constitution and limited home rule. This was expanded in , and Hannes Hafstein served as the first Minister for Iceland in the Danish cabinet.

The Government of Iceland established an embassy in Copenhagen and requested that Denmark carry out on its behalf certain defence and foreign affairs matters, subject to consultation with the Althing.

Danish embassies around the world displayed two coats of arms and two flags: those of the Kingdom of Denmark and those of the Kingdom of Iceland.

Iceland's legal position became comparable to those of countries belonging to the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada whose sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II.

After the German occupation of Denmark on 9 April , the Althing replaced the King with a regent and declared that the Icelandic government would take control of its own defence and foreign affairs.

Beginning on 20 May , Icelanders voted in a four-day plebiscite on whether to terminate the personal union with Denmark, abolish the monarchy, and establish a republic.

On 5 May , a defence agreement was signed with the United States. The US withdrew the last of its forces on 30 September Iceland prospered during the Second World War.

A few years later, Iceland became the first country to recognise the independence of Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania as they broke away from the USSR.

Throughout the s, the country expanded its international role and developed a foreign policy oriented toward humanitarian and peacekeeping causes.

Iceland joined the European Economic Area in , after which the economy was greatly diversified and liberalised. Iceland is at the juncture of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans.

Iceland is generally included in Europe for geographical, historical, political, cultural, linguistic and practical reasons.

Iceland is the world's 18th largest island , and Europe's second-largest island after Great Britain.

The island of Ireland is third. Lakes and glaciers cover Geologically, Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , a ridge along which the oceanic crust spreads and forms new oceanic crust.

This part of the mid-ocean ridge is located above a mantle plume, causing Iceland to be subaerial above the surface of the sea.

The ridge marks the boundary between the Eurasian and North American Plates , and Iceland was created by rifting and accretion through volcanism along the ridge.

Many fjords punctuate Iceland's 4,km-long 3,mi coastline, which is also where most settlements are situated.

The island's interior, the Highlands of Iceland , is a cold and uninhabitable combination of sand, mountains, and lava fields.

The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. A geologically young land, Iceland is the surface expression of the Iceland Plateau , a large igneous province forming as a result of volcanism from the Iceland hotspot and along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , the latter of which runs right through it.

After a phase of inactivity, Geysir started erupting again after a series of earthquakes in Geysir has since grown quieter and does not erupt often.

With the widespread availability of geothermal power , and the harnessing of many rivers and waterfalls for hydroelectricity , most residents have access to inexpensive hot water, heating, and electricity.

The island is composed primarily of basalt , a low- silica lava associated with effusive volcanism as has occurred also in Hawaii.

Iceland, however, has a variety of volcanic types composite and fissure , many producing more evolved lavas such as rhyolite and andesite.

Iceland has hundreds of volcanoes with about 30 active volcanic systems. Surtsey , one of the youngest islands in the world, is part of Iceland.

Named after Surtr , it rose above the ocean in a series of volcanic eruptions between 8 November and 5 June On 21 March , a volcano in Eyjafjallajökull in the south of Iceland erupted for the first time since , forcing people to flee their homes.

Another large eruption occurred on 21 May The climate of Iceland's coast is subarctic. The warm North Atlantic Current ensures generally higher annual temperatures than in most places of similar latitude in the world.

Regions in the world with similar climates include the Aleutian Islands , the Alaska Peninsula , and Tierra del Fuego , although these regions are closer to the equator.

Despite its proximity to the Arctic, the island's coasts remain ice-free through the winter. Ice incursions are rare, the last having occurred on the north coast in The climate varies between different parts of the island.

Generally speaking, the south coast is warmer, wetter, and windier than the north. The Central Highlands are the coldest part of the country.

Low-lying inland areas in the north are the most arid. Snowfall in winter is more common in the north than the south.

The highest air temperature recorded was Around three-quarters of the island is barren of vegetation; plant life consists mainly of grassland, which is regularly grazed by livestock.

The most common tree native to Iceland is the northern birch Betula pubescens , which formerly formed forests over much of Iceland, along with aspens Populus tremula , rowans Sorbus aucuparia , common junipers Juniperus communis , and other smaller trees, mainly willows.

The forests were heavily exploited over the centuries for firewood and timber. Today, many farms have been abandoned.

The planting of new forests has increased the number of trees, but the result does not compare to the original forests. Some of the planted forests include introduced species.

The only native land mammal when humans arrived was the Arctic fox , [86] which came to the island at the end of the ice age, walking over the frozen sea.

On rare occasions, bats have been carried to the island with the winds, but they are not able to breed there. Polar bears occasionally come over from Greenland , but they are just visitors, and no Icelandic populations exist.

The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep , cattle , chickens , goats , the sturdy Icelandic horse , and the Icelandic Sheepdog , all descendants of animals imported by Europeans.

Wild mammals include the Arctic fox, mink , mice, rats, rabbits, and reindeer. Polar bears occasionally visit the island, travelling on icebergs from Greenland.

In June , two polar bears arrived in the same month. Many species of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Iceland, and the fishing industry is a major part of Iceland's economy, accounting for roughly half of the country's total exports.

Birds, especially seabirds, are an important part of Iceland's animal life. Puffins , skuas , and kittiwakes nest on its sea cliffs. Commercial whaling is practised intermittently [92] [93] along with scientific whale hunts.

Around 1, species of insects are known in Iceland. This is low compared with other countries over one million species have been described worldwide.

Iceland is essentially free of mosquitoes. Iceland has a left—right multi-party system. Iceland was the first country in the world to have a political party formed and led entirely by women.

In Iceland was ranked 2nd in the strength of its democratic institutions [] and 13th in government transparency. Iceland is a representative democracy and a parliamentary republic.

It was widely seen as a re-establishment of the assembly founded in in the Commonwealth period and yet temporarily suspended from to Consequently, "it is arguably the world's oldest parliamentary democracy.

The head of government is the prime minister who, together with the cabinet , is responsible for executive government. The president, in contrast, is elected by popular vote for a term of four years with no term limit.

The elections for president, the Althing, and local municipal councils are all held separately every four years. The cabinet is appointed by the president after a general election to the Althing; however, the appointment is usually negotiated by the leaders of the political parties, who decide among themselves after discussions which parties can form the cabinet and how to distribute its seats, under the condition that it has a majority support in the Althing.

Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves within a reasonable time span does the president exercise this power and appoint the cabinet personally.

This has not happened since the republic was founded in , but in regent Sveinn Björnsson , who had been installed in that position by the Althing in , appointed a non-parliamentary government.

The regent had, for all practical purposes, the position of a president, and Sveinn would later become the country's first president in The governments of Iceland have always been coalition governments, with two or more parties involved, as no single political party has ever received a majority of seats in the Althing throughout the republican period.

The extent of the political power possessed by the office of the president is disputed by legal scholars [ which?

She retired from office in Iceland is divided into regions, constituencies and municipalities. The eight regions are primarily used for statistical purposes.

District court jurisdictions also use an older version of this division. The imbalance between districts has been reduced by the new system, but still exists.

Constituencies of Iceland. Municipalities of Iceland. Historically, due to cultural, economic and linguistic similarities, Iceland is a Nordic country , and it participates in intergovernmental cooperation through the Nordic Council.

It was not a member of the EU, but in July the Icelandic parliament, the Althing, voted in favour of application for EU membership [] and officially applied on 17 July Iceland has no standing army , but the Icelandic Coast Guard which also maintains the Iceland Air Defence System , and an Iceland Crisis Response Unit to support peacekeeping missions and perform paramilitary functions.

Air Force maintained four to six interceptor aircraft at the Naval Air Station Keflavik , until they were withdrawn on 30 September Iceland's principal historical international disputes involved disagreements over fishing rights.

According to the Global Peace Index , Iceland is the most peaceful country in the world, due to its lack of armed forces, low crime rate and high level of socio-political stability.

About 85 percent of total primary energy supply in Iceland is derived from domestically produced renewable energy sources.

Whaling in Iceland has been historically significant. Until the 20th century, Iceland was a fairly poor country. Currently, it remains one of the most developed countries in the world.

Nevertheless, according to the Economist Intelligence Index of , Iceland has the 2nd highest quality of life in the world. Many political parties remain opposed to EU membership, primarily due to Icelanders' concern about losing control over their natural resources particularly fisheries.

Iceland is the only country in the world to have a population under two million yet still have a floating exchange rate and an independent monetary policy.

On average, Iceland receives around 1. Iceland is ranked 27th in the Index of Economic Freedom , lower than in prior years but still among the freest in the world.

Employment regulations are relatively flexible and the labour market is one of the freest in the world. Property rights are strong and Iceland is one of the few countries where they are applied to fishery management.

Despite low tax rates, agricultural assistance is the highest among OECD countries and a potential impediment to structural change.

Also, health care and education spending have relatively poor returns by OECD measures, though improvements have been made in both areas.

Iceland had been hit especially hard by the Great Recession that began in December , because of the failure of its banking system and a subsequent economic crisis.

The Financial Supervisory Authority of Iceland used permission granted by the emergency legislation to take over the domestic operations of the three largest banks.

Instead, new banks were established to take on the domestic operations of the banks, and the old banks will be run into bankruptcy.

On 26 January , the coalition government collapsed due to the public dissent over the handling of the financial crisis.

Thousands of Icelanders have moved from the country after the collapse, and many of those moved to Norway. In , people moved from Iceland to Norway; in , the figure was 1, Iceland has a high level of car ownership per capita; with a car for every 1.

A great number of roads remain unpaved, mostly little-used rural roads. It serves several international and domestic airline companies.

RKV serves general aviation traffic and has daily- or regular domestic flights to 12 local townships within Iceland.

There are a total of registered airports and airfields in Iceland; most of them are unpaved and located in rural areas.

Six main ferry services provide regular access to various outpost communities or shorten travel distances. Despite this, Icelanders emitted On 22 January , Iceland announced its first round of offshore licences for companies wanting to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and production in a region northeast of Iceland, known as the Dreki area.

As of [update] , the government of Iceland was in talks with the government of the United Kingdom about the possibility of constructing Icelink , a high-voltage direct-current connector for transmission of electricity between the two countries.

The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that schools must use, and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines.

However, playschools, primary schools, and lower secondary schools are funded and administered by the municipalities. The government does allow citizens to home educate their children, however under a very strict set of demands.

The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in They are also responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible.

The school year lasts nine months, beginning between 21 August and 1 September, ending between 31 May and 10 June. The minimum number of school days was once , but after a new teachers' wage contract, it increased to Lessons take place five days a week.

All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity, although an exemption may be considered by the Minister of Education.

These schools are also known as gymnasia in English. Though not compulsory, everyone who has had a compulsory education has the right to upper secondary education.

This stage of education is governed by the Upper Secondary School Act of All schools in Iceland are mixed sex schools.

According to a Eurostat report by the European Commission , Iceland spends around 3. The original population of Iceland was of Nordic and Gaelic origin.

This is evident from literary evidence dating from the settlement period as well as from later scientific studies such as blood type and genetic analyses.

One such genetic study indicated that the majority of the male settlers were of Nordic origin while the majority of the women were of Gaelic origin, meaning many settlers of Iceland were Norsemen who brought Gaelic slaves with them.

Iceland has extensive genealogical records dating back to the late 17th century and fragmentary records extending back to the Age of Settlement.

The biopharmaceutical company deCODE genetics has funded the creation of a genealogy database that is intended to cover all of Iceland's known inhabitants.

The population of the island is believed to have varied from 40, to 60, in the period ranging from initial settlement until the midth century.

During that time, cold winters, ash fall from volcanic eruptions, and bubonic plagues adversely affected the population several times.

After the destructive volcanic eruptions of the Laki volcano during —, the population reached a low of about 40, With a fertility rate of 2.

In December , 33, people Polish people make up the largest minority group by a considerable margin, and still form the bulk of the foreign workforce.

Many Polish immigrants were also considering leaving in as a result of the Icelandic financial crisis. The southwest corner of Iceland is by far the most densely populated region.

The largest town outside the southwest corner is Akureyri in northern Iceland. Some Icelanders under the leadership of Erik the Red settled Greenland in the late 10th century.

Emigration of Icelanders to the United States and Canada began in the s. As of [update] , Canada had over 88, people of Icelandic descent, [] while there are more than 40, Americans of Icelandic descent, according to the US census.

Iceland's official written and spoken language is Icelandic , a North Germanic language descended from Old Norse.

In grammar and vocabulary, it has changed less from Old Norse than the other Nordic languages; Icelandic has preserved more verb and noun inflection , and has to a considerable extent developed new vocabulary based on native roots rather than borrowings from other languages.

The puristic tendency in the development of Icelandic vocabulary is to a large degree a result of conscious language planning, in addition to centuries of isolation.

The closest living relative of the Icelandic language is Faroese. Icelandic Sign Language was officially recognised as a minority language in In education, its use for Iceland's deaf community is regulated by the National Curriculum Guide.

English and Danish are compulsory subjects in the school curriculum. English is widely understood and spoken, while basic to moderate knowledge of Danish is common mainly among the older generations.

Scandinavian in Iceland. Rather than using family names , as is the usual custom in most Western nations, Icelanders carry patronymic or matronymic surnames, patronyms being far more commonly practiced.

Patronymic last names are based on the first name of the father, while matronymic names are based on the first name of the mother. These follow the person's given name, e.

Unlike most countries, there are no private hospitals, and private insurance is practically nonexistent.

A considerable portion of the government budget is assigned to health care, [] and Iceland ranks 11th in health care expenditures as a percentage of GDP [] and 14th in spending per capita.

As of [update] , Iceland had 3. Infant mortality is one of the lowest in the world, [] and the proportion of the population that smokes is lower than the OECD average.

Iceland has a very low level of pollution, thanks to an overwhelming reliance on cleaner geothermal energy, a low population density, and a high level of environmental consciousness among citizens.

Icelanders have freedom of religion guaranteed under the Constitution , although the Church of Iceland , a Lutheran body, is the state church :.

The Registers Iceland keeps account of the religious affiliation of every Icelandic citizen. In , Icelanders were divided into religious groups as follows:.

Iceland is a very secular country; as with other Nordic nations, church attendance is relatively low. Icelandic culture has its roots in North Germanic traditions.

Icelandic literature is popular, in particular the sagas and eddas that were written during the High and Late Middle Ages.

Centuries of isolation have helped to insulate the country's Nordic culture from external influence; a prominent example is the preservation of the Icelandic language , which remains the closest to Old Norse of all modern Nordic languages.

Iceland is liberal with regard to LGBT rights issues. In , the Icelandic parliament passed legislation to create registered partnerships for same-sex couples, conferring nearly all the rights and benefits of marriage.

In , parliament voted unanimously to grant same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual couples in adoption, parenting and assisted insemination treatment.

In , the Icelandic parliament amended the marriage law , making it gender neutral and defining marriage as between two individuals, making Iceland one of the first countries in the world to legalise same-sex marriages.

The law took effect on 27 June Egalitarianism is highly valued among the people of Iceland, with income inequality being among the lowest in the world.

As in other Nordic countries, equality between the sexes is very high; Iceland is consistently ranked among the top three countries in the world for women to live in.

Iceland's best-known classical works of literature are the Icelanders' sagas , prose epics set in Iceland's age of settlement.

A translation of the Bible was published in the 16th century. Steinn Steinarr was an influential modernist poet during the early 20th century who remains popular.

Icelanders are avid consumers of literature, with the highest number of bookstores per capita in the world. For its size, Iceland imports and translates more international literature than any other nation.

Most books in Iceland are sold between late September to early November. This time period is known as Jolabokaflod , the Christmas Book Flood.

The distinctive rendition of the Icelandic landscape by its painters can be linked to nationalism and the movement for home rule and independence , which was very active in the midth century.

Kjarval in particular is noted for the distinct techniques in the application of paint that he developed in a concerted effort to render the characteristic volcanic rock that dominates the Icelandic environment.

In the s, many Icelandic artists worked with the subject of the new painting in their work. In the recent years artistic practice has multiplied, and the Icelandic art scene has become a setting for many large scale projects and exhibitions.

The artist run gallery space Kling og Bang, members of which later ran the studio complex and exhibition venue Klink og Bank, has been a significant part of the trend of self-organised spaces, exhibitions and projects.

Traditional Icelandic turf houses. Until the 20th century, the vast majority of Icelanders lived in rural areas.

Much Icelandic music is related to Nordic music , and includes folk and pop traditions. Traditional Icelandic music is strongly religious.

Hymns, both religious and secular, are a particularly well-developed form of music, due to the scarcity of musical instruments throughout much of Iceland's history.

Smaller stations exist, many of them local. Radio is broadcast throughout the country, including some parts of the interior.

It has become a very popular programme for children and adults and is shown in over countries, including the Americas, the UK and Sweden.

After being unwelcomed in his daughter's and father-in-law's house in town, he is put in a home for the elderly.

There, he meets an old girlfriend of his youth and they both begin a journey through the wilds of Iceland to die together. This is the only Icelandic movie to have ever been nominated for an Academy Award.

Briem starred in the film Journey to the Center of the Earth , which shot scenes in Iceland. Christopher Nolan 's film, Interstellar was also filmed in Iceland for some of its scenes, as was Ridley Scott 's Prometheus.

On 17 June , the parliament passed the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative , proposing greater protection of free speech rights and the identity of journalists and whistle-blowers—the strongest journalist protection law in the world.

CCP Games hosts the third most populated MMO in the world, which also has the largest total game area for an online game.

Strong voices within the community expressed concerns with this, stating that it is impossible to block access to pornography without compromising freedom of speech.

Much of Iceland's cuisine is based on fish, lamb , and dairy products , with little to no use of herbs or spices. Due to the island's climate, fruits and vegetables are not generally a component of traditional dishes, although the use of greenhouses has made them more common in contemporary food.

The main meal of the day for most Icelanders is dinner, which usually involves fish or lamb as the main course. Seafood is central to most Icelandic cooking, particularly cod and haddock but also salmon , herring , and halibut.

It is often prepared in a wide variety of ways, either smoked, pickled, boiled, or dried. Lamb is by far the most common meat, and it tends to be either smoke-cured known as hangikjöt or salt-preserved saltkjöt.

Additionally, boiled or mashed potatoes, pickled cabbage, green beans, and rye bread are prevalent side dishes. Coffee is a popular beverage in Iceland, with the country being third placed by per capita consumption worldwide in , [] and is drunk at breakfast, after meals, and with a light snack in mid-afternoon.

Coca-Cola is also widely consumed, to the extent that the country is said to have one of the highest per capita consumption rates in the world.

It is a type of schnapps made from distilled potatoes and flavoured with either caraway seeds or angelica.

Martin Miller blends Icelandic water with its England-distilled gin on the island. Several strong beers are now made by Icelandic breweries.

Sport is an important part of Icelandic culture, as the population is generally quite active. Popular sports include football , track and field , handball and basketball.

Handball is often referred to as the national sport. They then lost to hosts and later finalists France in the quarter finals.

For both the European and the world championship, Iceland is to date the smallest nation in terms of population to qualify.

Iceland is also the smallest country to ever qualify for Eurobasket. They did it in both and Although Iceland has had great success qualifying for Eurobasket , they have not managed to win a single game in the European Basketball final stages.

Iceland has excellent conditions for skiing , fishing , snowboarding , ice climbing and rock climbing , although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public.

Iceland is also a world-class destination for alpine ski touring and Telemark skiing , with the Troll Peninsula in Northern Iceland being the main centre of activity.

Although the country's environment is generally ill-suited for golf, there are nevertheless many golf courses throughout the island, and Iceland has a greater percentage of the population playing golf than Scotland with over 17, registered golfers out of a population of approximately , Iceland is also one of the leading countries in ocean rowing.

Icelandic explorer and endurance athlete Fiann Paulholds the highest number of performance-based Guinness World Records within a single athletic discipline.

As of , he is the first and only person to achieve the Ocean Explorers Grand Slam performing open-water crossings on each of the five oceans using human-powered vessels and has claimed overall speed Guinness World Records for the fastest rowing of all four oceans Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic in a human-powered row boat.

He had achieved a total of 41, including 33 performance based Guinness World Records by Swimming is popular in Iceland. Geothermally heated outdoor pools are widespread, and swimming courses are a mandatory part of the national curriculum.

Rifle shooting became very popular in the 19th century with the encouragement of politicians and nationalists who were pushing for Icelandic independence.

To this day, it remains a significant pastime. As of [update] , there have been nine Icelandic chess grandmasters, a considerable number given the small size of the population.

Iceland won the world bridge championship the Bermuda Bowl in Yokohama, Japan, in and took second place with Sweden in Hamilton, Bermuda, in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 June This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Iceland disambiguation. Island country in the North Atlantic. Show globe. Show map of Europe. See also: Names of Iceland.

Main articles: History of Iceland and Timeline of Icelandic history. Norwegian rule. Danish rule. Home rule. King- dom.

See also: Age of the Sturlungs. See also: Icelandic independence movement and Fjölnir journal. Further information: — Icelandic financial crisis and Icelandic financial crisis protests.

Further information: Geography of Iceland. Landscape as seen from Laugavegur hiking trail. Main article: Geology of Iceland.

See also: Iceland hotspot. Köppen climate classification types of Iceland. Eyjafjallajökull glacier, one of the smaller glaciers of Iceland.

Main article: Climate of Iceland. Main article: Wildlife of Iceland. Main article: Politics of Iceland.

See also: Government of Iceland. Main article: Administrative divisions of Iceland. Regions of Iceland. Main article: Military of Iceland.

Main article: Economy of Iceland. Main article: — Icelandic financial crisis. Main article: Transport in Iceland.

See also: Renewable energy in Iceland. See also: Education in Iceland. For statistics on demographics, see Demographics of Iceland.

See also: Icelanders. Largest cities or towns in Iceland statice. Main articles: Languages of Iceland and Icelandic language. See also: Icelandic name.

Main article: Religion in Iceland. Main article: Culture of Iceland. Main article: Icelandic literature. Main article: Icelandic art.

High School precinct in Akureyri. Main article: Music of Iceland. See also: Media of Iceland and Cinema of Iceland. Main article: Sport in Iceland.

Iceland portal. Although this name is found in some documents, it does not have official status. Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 27 May International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 7 March United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 7 November Archived from the original on 7 November The National Statistical Institute of Iceland.

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