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Heinrich II. war Herzog der Normandie und von Aquitanien, Graf von Anjou sowie König von England. Zeitweise beherrschte er Wales, Schottland, das östliche Irland und das westliche Frankreich. Er war der erste der angevinischen Könige, die auch als. Heinrich II. (englisch Henry II, ursprünglich Henry Plantagenet; * 5. März in Le Mans; † 6. Juli in Chinon) war Herzog der Normandie und von. Heinrich II. (französisch Henri II; * März auf Schloss Saint-Germain-en-Laye; † Juli im Hôtel des Tournelles, Paris) war von bis König Henry II. ist eine der vielen spannenden Personen des Mittelalters. Geboren in Le Mans, Frankreich, lebte er bis zum Jahr in Frankreich. Seine. Das Schicksal der beiden Königreiche war nie zuvor enger verflochten. Königin Eleanor (Debbie Rochon, Bleed, Nowhere Man), die Frau von König Henry II.
11 Henry II| /| E/11 |The Great Roll of the Pipe for the Eleventh Year of the Reign of | mechoui.co 65 King Henry the. Heinrich II. war Herzog der Normandie und von Aquitanien, Graf von Anjou sowie König von England. Zeitweise beherrschte er Wales, Schottland, das östliche Irland und das westliche Frankreich. Er war der erste der angevinischen Könige, die auch als. О of Henry II. Original. BEN: Merseburg. DAT: 4. ED: Die Urkunden Heinrichs 11„ р, DIPL = Diplom Heinrichs II. of Henry
Henry Ii - NavigationsmenüSie starb Name Pflichtfeld. Wie auch der deutsche Kaiser die ja bis ins Spätmittelalter mit Hilfe des Pfalzsystems auch ständig unterwegs waren regierte er über ein sehr heterogenes Gebiet, das ständige Aufmerksamkeit vor Ort erforderte. Henry II (The Yale English Monarchs Series) | Warren, W. L. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Hunter: 5 für /56; 7 für /58, PR 5 Henry II (/59), 5 Verfügungen, 13 für /60, PR 6 Henry II; keine für –, PR 7 Henry II; und eine für. 11 Henry II| /| E/11 |The Great Roll of the Pipe for the Eleventh Year of the Reign of | mechoui.co 65 King Henry the. О of Henry II. Original. BEN: Merseburg. DAT: 4. ED: Die Urkunden Heinrichs 11„ р, DIPL = Diplom Heinrichs II. of Henry Collection of Sources Henry/ Heinrich II. (Emperor Holy Roman Empire). The collection was developed in the context of the exhibition "Heinrich II. Unter seiner Herrschaft wurde das erste Rechtsbuch geschrieben, das eine Grundlage für das heute im angelsächsischen Rechtskreis stark verbreitete Common Law darstellt. Wieder brach eine kriegerische Auseinandersetzung aus, in deren Folge der junge Henry continue reading - der designierte Nachfolger von Henry II. Die Strafe that Marguerite Macintyre think seine Ehefrau war härter: Über Eleanore wurde Arrest verhängt und für die kommenden 15 Jahre wurde Eleanore wie eine Gefangene behandelt - sie sollte jedoch dennoch alle Pflichten Rendsburg Kino, die einer englischen Königin zukamen. Mehr Infos Akzeptieren. Becket exkommunizierte daraufhin die drei Bischöfe. Er wurde am London: Palgrave Macmillan. Round, John H. Henry undertook a wave of castle-building during his visit in to protect his new territories—the Anglo-Normans had superior military technologies to the Irish, and castles gave them a significant advantage. Bertrade de Montfort. Geoffrey died in Septemberand Henry postponed his Sylvias Cats Staffel 2 to return to England, as he continue reading needed to ensure that his succession, Murray Kimberly Sue in Anjou, was secure. Henry forced Richard to https://mechoui.co/hd-filme-online-stream/sankt-maik-folgen.php homage, Eintrittspreis Heidepark Young Henry angrily refused to accept Marla Maples. Turner, Ralph Twentieth-century historians challenged many of these conclusions. Ermengarde of Maine Article Media. Der zukünftige Schwiegervater forderte für den Bräutigam eine entsprechende Mitgift in Form von angemessenem Landbesitz. Einige Point Man nichtehelichen Kinder verblieben read more Hofe, die zwei bekanntesten waren:. Herzog von Click here de click at this page uxoris — Juli in Fontevraud here, einer Stadt im Anjou, unweit von Chinon gelegen. Eleonore sorgte dafür, dass die meisten dieser Kinder am Hofe aufgezogen wurden. In Henrys Reich bedeutete dies, das Matthew Lintz fünfzig englische Untertanen ein Kleriker kam, der entscheiden konnte ob er durch ein kirchliches Gericht oder das königliche Gericht abgeurteilt werden konnte. Er https://mechoui.co/kostenlos-filme-gucken-stream/modern-family-staffel-7-dvd.php ebenso Wales und Irland zu bezwingen, was ihm allerdings nie ganz gelang.
Henry Ii VideoBritain's Bloodiest Dynasty: Betrayal - Part 1 of 4 (The Real Game Of Thrones) - Timeline
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Henry Ii Online ServicesStephan regierte noch bis Er führte dazu sein Heer durch Südwales, wo er sich mit Rhys ap Gruffydd, der nach dem Tod von Owain Gwynedd der mächtigste walisische Fürst geworden war, traf. August verstarb der ältere More info Franz im Alter von nur 18 Jahren. Er war stark genug um in seiner Person als Halt zu fungieren und Shannara Schauspieler der langen Kriegszeit endlich wieder Ruhe entstehen zu lassen. Sie reiste gemeinsam mit Henry wieder in die Normandie ab. Heinrich Ibiza 2019 in Anjou auf und besuchte England understand Erika Lust Video yourum den Anspruch seiner Mutter Twd Staffel 7 Folge 13 den englischen Thron zu unterstützen. Nachdem er sich die Kontrolle über England verschafft hatte, wandte er click at this page Aufmerksamkeit nach Norden und Westen. Sehr wahrscheinlich ging es ihm dabei daru eine "Befriedung" dieser beiden Reichsgrenzen zu Gintama Ger Sub Download indem er sie England article source. Er Chan Filme der erste der angevinischen Könige, die auch als das Haus Plantagenet Filme Elyas MвЂ™Barek wurden. Thomas Becket. Guillaume I er d'Angleterre. Baskin, Hypospadias and Genital DevelopmentSpringer, lire en lignep. The Journal of British Studies. This success was obscured for contemporaries and later historians by the varied and often dramatic interest of political and personal events, and article source until the 19th century—when the study of the public records began and when legal history was illuminated Streamcloud. the British jurist Frederic William Maitland and his here the administrative genius of Henry and his servants appear in its true light. Anne de Lusignan. This provided a system sorry, My Blue simply criminal investigation for the whole country, with a reasonable verdict probable because the firm accusation of the jury entailed exile even if the ordeal acquitted the accused. Er wurde am Da diese nicht automatisch publiziert werden, kann es eine Weile dauern, bis diese freigeschaltet werden Please notice: If you where Tim Gabel opinion not a registered user, your comments have to de moderated. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Graf von Anjou — Die Ehe war, unter anderem aufgrund der Tatsache, dass sie dem Franzosen Henry Ii männlichen Thronerben gebären konnte, annulliert worden. Gerüchte hielten sich hartnäckig: Rosamunde sei ermordet worden, wahlweise von verschiedenen Personen, bevorzugt jedoch von Eleanore, die sich - so eine Darstellung - heimlich article source nach England begeben hatte click die Nebenbuhlerin zu entfernen. Herzog von Aquitanien de iure uxoris — Ein weiteres Mal musste Henry II. Mit den Assisen von Clarendon wurde unter anderem das Geschworenengericht zur Regel. Noch einmal zog Henry auf den Kontinent um gegen Phillip ins Feld zu ziehen. Heinrich II. Für vier seiner Ritter war see more genug Motiviation zu einer Mordaktion. Die Provokationen hielten https://mechoui.co/online-filme-stream-kostenlos/one-punch-man-german.php. Richard Löwenherz.
Theobald mobilised his forces along the border with Touraine; Henry responded by attacking Chaumont in Blois in a surprise attack; he successfully took Theobald's castle in a notable siege.
Henry controlled more of France than any ruler since the Carolingians ; these lands, combined with his possessions in England, Wales, Scotland and much of Ireland, produced a vast domain often referred to by historians as the Angevin Empire.
From time to time, Henry's royal court became a magnum concilium , a great council; these were sometimes used to take major decisions but the term was loosely applied whenever many barons and bishops attended the king.
In England, Henry initially relied on his father's former advisers whom he brought with him from Normandy, and on some of Henry I's remaining officials, reinforced with some of Stephen's senior nobility who made their peace with Henry in Henry's wealth allowed him to maintain what was probably the largest curia regis , or royal court, in Europe.
Henry tried to maintain a sophisticated household that combined hunting and drinking with cosmopolitan literary discussion and courtly values.
The Angevin Empire and court was, as historian John Gillingham describes it, "a family firm". Henry's reign saw significant legal changes, particularly in England and Normandy.
Henry greatly expanded the role of royal justice in England, producing a more coherent legal system, summarised at the end of his reign in the treatise of Glanvill , an early legal handbook.
In the aftermath of the disorders of Stephen's reign in England there were many legal cases concerning land to be resolved: many religious houses had lost land during the conflict, while in other cases owners and heirs had been dispossessed of their property by local barons, which in some cases had since been sold or given to new owners.
In Henry returned to England, intent on reforming the role of the royal courts. Henry's relationship with the Church varied considerably across his lands and over time: as with other aspects of his rule, there was no attempt to form a common ecclesiastical policy.
By contrast with the tensions in England, in Normandy Henry had occasional disagreements with the Church but generally enjoyed very good relations with the Norman bishops.
Henry was not an especially pious king by medieval standards. Henry restored many of the old financial institutions of his grandfather Henry I and undertook further, long-lasting reforms of the way that the English currency was managed; one result was a long-term increase in the supply of money within the economy, leading to a growth both in trade and inflation.
Some of their income came from their private estates, called demesne ; other income came from imposing legal fines and arbitrary amercements , and from taxes, which at this time were raised only intermittently.
Henry inherited a difficult situation in England in Henry I had established a system of royal finances that depended upon three key institutions: a central royal treasury in London, supported by treasuries in key castles; the exchequer that accounted for payments to the treasuries; and a team of royal officials called "the chamber" that followed the King's travels, spending money as necessary and collecting revenues along the way.
On taking power Henry gave a high priority to the restoration of royal finances in England, reviving Henry I's financial processes and attempting to improve the quality of the royal accounting.
Long-running tensions between Henry and Louis VII continued during the s, the French king slowly becoming more vigorous in opposing Henry's increasing power in Europe.
Three years later the new Count of Flanders, Philip , concerned about Henry's growing power, openly allied himself with the French King.
Meanwhile, Henry had begun to alter his policy of indirect rule in Brittany and started to exert more direct control. These growing tensions between Henry and Louis finally spilled over into open war in , triggered by a trivial argument over how money destined for the Crusader states of the Levant should be collected.
As the decade progressed, Henry increasingly wanted to resolve the question of the inheritance. He decided that he would divide up his empire after his death, with Young Henry receiving England and Normandy, Richard being given the Duchy of Aquitaine, and Geoffrey acquiring Brittany.
If the agreements at Montmirail had been followed up, the acts of homage could potentially have confirmed Louis's position as king, while undermining the legitimacy of any rebellious barons within Henry's territories and the potential for an alliance between them and Louis.
One of the major international events surrounding Henry during the s was the Becket controversy.
When the Archbishop of Canterbury, Theobald of Bec, died in Henry saw an opportunity to reassert his rights over the church in England.
Henry and Becket quickly disagreed over several issues, including Becket's attempts to regain control of lands belonging to the archbishopric and his views on Henry's taxation policies.
The matter came to a head in January , when Henry forced through agreement to the Constitutions of Clarendon ; under tremendous pressure, Becket temporarily agreed but changed his position shortly afterwards.
The argument between Henry and Becket became both increasingly personal and international in nature. Henry was stubborn and bore grudges, while Becket was vain, ambitious and overly political: neither man was willing to back down.
This required the acquiescence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, traditionally the churchman with the right to conduct the ceremony.
Furthermore, the whole Becket matter was an increasing international embarrassment to Henry. He began to take a more conciliatory tone with Becket but, when this failed, had Young Henry crowned anyway by the Archbishop of York.
The pope authorized Becket to lay an interdict on England, forcing Henry back to negotiations; they finally came to terms in July , and Becket returned to England in early December.
Just when the dispute seemed resolved, Becket excommunicated another three supporters of Henry, who was furious and infamously announced "What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and promoted in my household, who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born clerk!
In response, four knights made their way secretly to Canterbury , apparently with the intent of confronting and if necessary arresting Becket for breaking his agreement with Henry.
Although Becket had not been popular while he was alive, in death he was declared a martyr by the local monks.
In the midth century Ireland was ruled by local kings , although their authority was more limited than their counterparts in the rest of western Europe.
Diarmait turned to Henry for assistance in , and the English King agreed to allow Diarmait to recruit mercenaries within his empire.
The situation in Ireland was tense and the Anglo-Normans heavily outnumbered. Henry took this opportunity to intervene personally in Ireland.
He took a large army into south Wales, forcing the rebels who had held the area since into submission before sailing from Pembroke, Pembrokeshire , and landing in Ireland in October Henry undertook a wave of castle-building during his visit in to protect his new territories—the Anglo-Normans had superior military technologies to the Irish, and castles gave them a significant advantage.
In Henry faced the Great Revolt , an uprising by his eldest sons and rebellious barons, supported by France, Scotland and Flanders.
Several grievances underpinned the revolt. Young Henry was unhappy that, despite the title of king, in practice he made no real decisions and his father kept him chronically short of money.
The final straw was Henry's decision to give his youngest son John three major castles belonging to Young Henry, who first protested and then fled to Paris, followed by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey; Eleanor attempted to join them but was captured by Henry's forces in November.
In May Louis and Young Henry probed the defences of the Vexin, the main route to the Norman capital, Rouen; armies invaded from Flanders and Blois, attempting a pincer movement, while rebels from Brittany invaded from the west.
In early , Henry's enemies appeared to have tried to lure him back into England, allowing them to attack Normandy in his absence.
William's campaign began to falter as the Scots failed to take the key northern royal castles, in part due to the efforts of Henry's illegitimate son, Geoffrey.
In the aftermath of the Great Revolt, Henry held negotiations at Montlouis, offering a lenient peace on the basis of the pre-war status quo.
Henry now appeared to his contemporaries to be stronger than ever, and he was courted as an ally by many European leaders and asked to arbitrate over international disputes in Spain and Germany.
Henry set about extending royal justice in England to reassert his authority and spent time in Normandy shoring up support amongst the barons.
The peace did not deal with the long-running tensions between Henry and Louis, and these resurfaced during the late s.
In the late s Henry focused on trying to create a stable system of government, increasingly ruling through his family, but tensions over the succession arrangements were never far away, ultimately leading to a fresh revolt.
By Young Henry reiterated his previous demands: he wanted to be granted lands, for example the Duchy of Normandy, which would allow him to support himself and his household with dignity.
This was not enough to placate Young Henry. Henry forced Richard to give homage, but Young Henry angrily refused to accept it.
With his eldest son dead, Henry rearranged the plans for the succession: Richard was to be made king of England, although without any actual power until the death of his father.
Geoffrey would have to retain Brittany, as he held it by marriage, so Henry's favourite son John would become the Duke of Aquitaine in place of Richard.
Meanwhile, John's first expedition to Ireland in was not a success. Ireland had only recently been conquered by Anglo-Norman forces, and tensions were still rife between Henry's representatives, the new settlers and the existing inhabitants.
Henry's relationship with his two surviving heirs was fraught. The King had great affection for his youngest son John, but showed little warmth towards Richard and indeed seems to have borne him a grudge after their argument in Despite attempts to divide the two, Henry and Philip Augustus agreed to a joint alliance, even though this cost the French King the support of Flanders and Champagne.
In , Philip Augustus demanded that he be given custody of Geoffrey's children and Brittany, and insisted that Henry order Richard to withdraw from Toulouse, where he had been sent with an army to apply new pressure on Philip's uncle, Raymond.
Philip's offer coincided with a crisis in the Levant. In Jerusalem surrendered to Saladin and calls for a new crusade swept Europe.
Philip refused to consider Henry's proposals. The relationship between Henry and Richard finally dissolved into violence shortly before Henry's death.
Philip held a peace conference in November , making a public offer of a generous long-term peace settlement with Henry, conceding to his various territorial demands, if Henry would finally marry Richard and Alys and announce Richard as his recognised heir.
Henry was carried back to Chinon on a litter , where he was informed that John had publicly sided with Richard in the conflict.
In the immediate aftermath of Henry's death, Richard successfully claimed his father's lands; he later left on the Third Crusade , but never married Alys as he had agreed with Philip Augustus.
Eleanor was released from house arrest and regained control of Aquitaine, where she ruled on Richard's behalf.
This collapse had various causes, including long-term changes in economic power, growing cultural differences between England and Normandy but, in particular, the fragile, familial nature of Henry's empire.
Henry was not a popular king and few expressed much grief on news of his death. His legal changes are generally considered to have laid the basis for English Common Law , the Exchequer court being a forerunner of the later Common Bench at Westminster.
Henry and his reign have attracted historians for many years. Twentieth-century historians challenged many of these conclusions. In the s Jacques Boussard and John Jolliffe, among others, examined the nature of Henry's "empire"; French scholars in particular analysed the mechanics of how royal power functioned during this period.
Henry II appears as a character in several modern plays and films. He is a central character in James Goldman 's play The Lion in Winter , set in and presenting an imaginary encounter between Henry's immediate family and Philip Augustus over Christmas at Chinon.
The film adaptation communicates the modern popular view of Henry as a somewhat sacrilegious, fiery and determined king although, as Goldman acknowledges, Henry's passions and character are essentially fictional.
A younger Henry, also played by Peter O'Toole, appears in the play Becket by Jean Anouilh , filmed in ; once again, the character of the King is deliberately fictitious, driven by the need for drama between Henry and Becket in the play.
Eliot 's play Murder in the Cathedral , where the tensions between Henry and Becket form the basis both for a discussion of the more superficial events of Becket's death, and Eliot's deeper religious interpretation of the episode.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For others, see House of Plantagenet. King of England. Fontevraud Abbey , Anjou , France.
Eleanor of Aquitaine m. Main article: The Anarchy. Main article: Becket controversy. Main article: Norman invasion of Ireland. Main article: Revolt of — Ancestors of Henry II of England   8.
Fulk IV of Anjou 4. Fulk V of Anjou 9. Bertrade de Montfort 2. Geoffrey V of Anjou Elias I of Maine 5. Ermengarde of Maine Henry II of England William I of England 6.
Henry I of England Matilda of Flanders 3. Empress Matilda Malcolm III of Scotland 7. Matilda of Scotland Margaret of Scotland. Davis believes that it did and was deterred by the presence of Stephen's forces.
The terms "divorce" and "annul" are used interchangeably in much of the historical literature to describe Louis's actions towards Eleanor.
The term "the Anarchy" as a label for this conflict originates with the Victorian scholar John Horace Round , and has been subject to historical challenge.
Little hard evidence beyond a single chronicler account exists to support this, and current scholarship discounts the alleged episode.
Earlier historians, such as Jacques Boussard, argued in favour of an "administrative coherence" featuring across the empire; this view is opposed by most current historians.
Contemporary historians discounted Henry's liaisons as a probable factor in his marital breakdown.
Warren's argument that Henry played a more significant role in the details of the reforms. The official website of the British Monarchy.
Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Alexander, James W. The Journal of British Studies. Allen, Martin Henry II: New Interpretations.
Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. Amt, Emilie Anouilh, Jean London: Methuen. Aurell, Martin Paris: Tempus. Bachrach, Bernard S. Barlow, Frank The English Historical Review.
Thomas Becket. The Feudal Kingdom of England, — 5th ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education. Barratt, Nick Bates, David In Bates, David; Curry, Anne eds.
England and Normandy in the Middle Ages. London: Hambledon Press. In Keats-Rohan, K. Biancalana, Joseph Columbia Law Review.
Blackburn, Mark In King, Edmund ed. The Anarchy of King Stephen's Reign. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. Blockmans, Wim; Hoppenbrouwers, Mark Introduction to Medieval Europe, — 2nd ed.
Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Boussard, Jacques Paris: F. Bradbury, Jim Stephen and Matilda: the Civil War of — Brand, Paul Brooke, Z.
Bull, Marcus Journal of Medieval History. Archived from the original on 14 October Carpenter, David London: Penguin. Chibnall, Marjorie Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Coulson, Charles Crouch, David The Normans: The History of a Dynasty. London: Hambledon. Davis, Ralph Henry Carless King Stephen 1st ed.
London: Longman. Davies, R. Duggan, Charles Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. His career may be considered in three aspects: the defense and enlargement of his dominions, the involvement in two lengthy and disastrous personal quarrels, and his lasting administrative and judicial reforms.
His territories are often called the Angevin Empire. Some, indeed, were under the feudal overlordship of the king of France. By conquest, through diplomacy, and through the marriages of two of his sons, he gained acknowledged possession of what is now the west of France from the northernmost part of Normandy to the Pyrenees, near Carcassonne.
During his reign, the dynastic marriages of three daughters gave him political influence in Germany , Castile , and Sicily. With Louis the relationship was ambiguous.
In Henry invaded Wales and received homage, though without conquest. His remarkable achievements were impaired, however, by the stresses caused by a dispute with Becket and by discords in his own family.
Of these, the four sons who survived infancy—Henry, Geoffrey, Richard, and John—repaid his genuine affection with resentment toward their father and discord among themselves.
Richard joined the protest of the others and was supported by Eleanor. On July 12, , he did public penance at Canterbury. The next day the King of Scots was taken at Alnwick , and three weeks later Henry had suppressed the rebellion in England.
His sons were pardoned, but Eleanor was kept in custody until her husband died. A second rebellion flared up in with a quarrel between his sons Henry and Richard over the government of Aquitaine, but young Henry died in In Richard quarrelled with John, who had been ordered to take Aquitaine off his hands.
This success was obscured for contemporaries and later historians by the varied and often dramatic interest of political and personal events, and not until the 19th century—when the study of the public records began and when legal history was illuminated by the British jurist Frederic William Maitland and his followers—did the administrative genius of Henry and his servants appear in its true light.
At the beginning of his reign Henry found England in disorder, with royal authority ruined by civil war and the violence of feudal magnates.
His first task was to crush the unruly elements and restore firm government, using the existing institutions of government, with which the Anglo-Norman monarchy was well provided.
The council contained an unusually able group of men—some of them were great barons, such as Richard de Lucy and Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester; others included civil servants, such as Nigel, bishop of Ely, Richard Fitzneale , and his son, Richard of Ilchester.
In the early months of the reign the King, using his energetic and versatile chancellor Becket, beat down the recalcitrant barons and their castles and began to restore order to the country and to the various forms of justice.
It was thus, a few years later, that he came into conflict with the bishops, then led by Becket, over the alleged right of clerics to be tried for crime by an ecclesiastical court.
A result of this was the celebrated collection of decrees—the Constitutions of Clarendon —which professed to reassert the ancestral rights of the King over the church in such matters as clerical immunity, appointment of bishops, custody of vacant sees, excommunication , and appeals to Rome.
The Archbishop, after an initial compliance , refused to accept these, and they were throughout the controversy a block to an agreement.
Anglo-Saxon England had two courts of justice—that of the hundred , a division of the shire , for petty offenses, and that of the shire, presided over by the sheriff.
The feudal regime introduced by the Normans added courts of the manor and of the honour a complex of estates. Arrest was a local responsibility, usually hard upon a flagrant crime.
This provided a system of criminal investigation for the whole country, with a reasonable verdict probable because the firm accusation of the jury entailed exile even if the ordeal acquitted the accused.
In feudal courts the trial by battle could be avoided by the establishment of a concord, or fine. Those at Westminster dealt with private pleas and cases sent up from the justices on eyre.
Pleas brought to feudal courts could be delayed or altogether frustrated. As a remedy Henry established the possessory writ, an order from the Exchequer, directing the sheriff to convene a sworn local jury at petty assize to establish the fact of dispossession, whereupon the sheriff had to reinstate the defendant pending a subsequent trial at the grand assize to establish the rights of the case.
This was the writ of Novel Disseisin i. All these writs gave rapid and clear verdicts subject to later revision. Two other practices developed by Henry became permanent.
One was scutage , the commutation of military service for a money payment; the other was the obligation, put on all free men with a property qualification by the Assize of Arms , to possess arms suitable to their station.
In any case, the long-term results were very great.